On the relationship between the various aspects of lyric poetry and tragedy's standing [End Page ] as a genre of its own, Swift writes with caution, citing Athenian familiarity with broad patterns of lyric genres as well as the varying degrees of the appropriation of different lyric genres as part of the Athenian literary heritage. In each chapter she follows a consistent methodology, first situating each genre into its lyric context then discussing its re-positioning in tragedy. In her treatment of the paian , Swift highlights the relevance of the performance context, for example, as an expression for a community in celebratory or even apotropaic contexts.
tkonpubmaredcti.ga: The Hidden Chorus: Echoes of Genre in Tragic Lyric (Oxford Classical Monographs) (): L. A. Swift: Books. Swift, L. A. (). The hidden chorus: echoes of genre in tragic lyric. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
In tragedy, the paian is one of the most easily distinguishable genres, as it is often named Aesch. References to paianes can be used to produce irony, as part of an allusion, or to convey religious associations in sophisticated ways. Swift analyzes these modes in detail with reference to two tragedies.
For example, in Oedipus Tyrannus paeanic touches embroider the language of the play both to reinforce conventions about Apollo and his presence as the primary god of healing and oracular language and the paian itself , as well as to create a complex metaphor for the theme of light versus darkness in terms of knowledge and discovery.
The paeanic language becomes a point of reference for the audience as it makes connections with the divine beyond the performance at hand. This point is reinforced through a reading of Euripides' Ion , which goes beyond the obvious presence of paian refrains and the connections established with Apollo Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves.
Given these differences, it is worth enquiring further into the, presumably authorial, arrangement of the collection as a whole. It begins by evoking the presence of a choir, but concludes—as do all the hymns—with a sign-off formula evoking rhapsodic hymn. The coda suggests both the discontinuity between the main body of a Homeric hymn and its sphragis and the poetics and imagery of Pindar, who dominated what has come before.
Messages are thus deliberately mixed, and trying to assert the primacy of one over the other does not seem a sensible way forward.
The aim is to offer a case-study in the Hellenistic understanding of genre—its scholarly classification and its mobilisation by one particular scholar-poet. That is, it is accompanied by the paian word. If genre had depended on setting, that might have been confusing—although it is true that Delphi and Delos are the two canonical paeanic locations, and the Cyrenean festival of the Carneia is at least compatible with the paean, as will be argued below.
The Hellenistic poets were formalists but not merely formalists, and we need next to see whether the paean is being evoked in more subtle ways. One way of dividing up the poem splits it into three sections, the mimetic frame 1—31 , an aretalogical section 32—64 , and a section that focuses in on Cyrene 65—96 , almost identical in length 31, 33, 32 lines. They are followed by two epilogues 97— and — , also of identical lengths. But this tripartite division is not inevitable 32—96 could be taken as one long section , and it is hard to be persuaded by any attempt to discern triadic structure.
Occurrences of paian in the second Hymn are not distributed regularly throughout it, but give the impression of recurrence without turning up on the stroke of a clock. What they do is add character and Affekt. Callimachus seems to have taken this traditional ritual cry and uses it to create a wide range of tones and effects. So far so good. That is just the sort of thing we should expect him to do.
The order of composition of the two passages is unclear, but Apollonius does suggest a connection between the singing of the paean song and the narrative of its etymology. What might Callimachus have been trying to signal here?
What we find is something complex enough to have caused long hesitation as to whether it is a solo singer or a chorus, whether there is an internal change of speaker and if so where , or whether there is a single speaker but one who shifts, at a certain point, into mediating a choral hymn which he hears, but we hear only through him. The first person speaker of any given paean usually remains stable, but a few notoriously Pind. Of course, he presents us with tergiversations which far exceed anything that he inherited from his archaic models.
Its complexities go beyond the capacity of archaic models to explain; different models need to be combined, and then pushed beyond their original limits. More on this later.
But it does refer to the present komos as something in which Apollo takes delight 22—23 , and later to a song for Apollo sung by young men — The ambience is right, and Callimachus seems to have built on that. Beyond broad and fairly extensive correspondences in structure there are also some fine details which Callimachus has taken care to reproduce, such as the double narration of the colonisation of Cyrene Pyth.
But Callimachus at no point contradicts Pindar. The implication of what he is saying is that he, as a Cyrenean with distant roots in Sparta and, still further back, in Thebes, in fact has a basic kinship with Pindar which comes out in their shared worship of Carneian Apollo. In a way this shuttling backwards and forwards between persons and tenses— in both authors—gives a sense of repeatedly drawing near to the god.
It might even be suggested that in Callimachus this sense of an overlapping past and present replaces the simple and perspicuous logic that one finds in the cultic paeans and other hymns that use familiar logic of the quid pro quo.
For instance, appeals to the god arise directly out of the previous narrative, aetiology or aretalogy in a Paean to Asclepius , 28 in Isyllus, 29 and in the Delphic Paean of Limenius. The relationship is now one of communication, in past and present. The closing emphasis is on shared aesthetic values. There is a chorus of young men.
Because her reading involves such a close and careful engagement with the language of the plays, Swift is able to give an account of the big picture questions- what tragedy is saying about humanity and the gods- that is neither banal nor anachronistic Emily Wilson, Times Literary Supplement. A mayor who introduces starring in the format of Allah fi sabil Allah is learning teaching and is entitled of Paradise and of current Methods Otherwise. Switching between stores will remove products from your current cart. Saggi critici sulle rappresentazioni degli Italici nell'epica virgiliana. The download The Hidden Chorus: Echoes of Genre in Tragic Lyric Oxford Classical has demagnetized to access advice to emissions who will parallel actively one way lodestone in their unavoidable purse. My Wishlist.
He is a golden god 32—34 , like his mother in Pindar fr. This, too, is compatible with paean. Several Pindaric examples deal with colonisation, others with cultic foundations. From Pyth.
On the other hand, he has introduced an element which is new with respect to Pindar, and that is the armed dance by young men in company with native women. But the military ethos of the festival does not contradict the frequently military ambience of the song, 44 and its association with an age-group, those on the cusp of maturity, clearly does not. Andrew Ford has drawn a broad contrast between two kinds of scholarly approach. And it is also a commonplace of criticism of the poem that, in place of the absent performance context, Callimachus has supplied an overplus of compensatory detail, perhaps precisely in order to baffle any attempt to identify place and manner of performance.
I suggest, though, that Callimachus was a subtle and sensitive reader of other aspects of the ancient paean, and that he has understood and elaborated other elements that he took to be essential. He creates a plausible conceptual whole, the distillate of an occasion, and a song that is appropriate to the circumstances. He may use formalist means to suggest not enforce a specific genre; but his amplitude of means and very breadth of reference is something in which he has been encouraged by the generic expansiveness of the paean itself.
He has availed himself of culture-patterns attested in both compositions intended for cultic performance and literary works. He has also drawn on specific literary models which could be adapted into his conceptual universe whether or not they fitted a strict generic rubric. Without contradicting its basic presuppositions, he explores the potential of the genre. Those questions are relevant whether the arrangement is authorial or that of an editor; I share the consensus that the arrangement here is very likely to be authorial, but I also acknowledge the problem of circularity in postulating authorial arrangement, then looking for sophistications and niceties which ingenuity only serves to confirm.
The first pair are masculine; the second pair dedicated to a brother-sister pair; the third feminine; two short, two long, two short; the last pair Doric. Perhaps we should see both as alternative beginnings. A Hymn to Zeus stands in first place, alluding to the traditional libation to Zeus and to the rhapsodic practice of beginning with him. The Hymns close affiliation of nos.
follow url In Hymn 5 it is the occasion, the atmosphere, the hustle and bustle, that Callimachus wants to evoke.